Substance use disorder (SUD) and addiction are complex and challenging conditions. But recovery is possible with the right treatment plan. In fact, substance use disorder (SUD) and addiction affect everyone, regardless of age, gender, economic or social status. Many people in different countries are involved in this problem. You may know someone who started taking pain relievers, such as opioids, that were prescribed to them after an injury. Then, as their bodies struggled with dependence, trying to cut back or quit on their own became painful — or nearly impossible. In this article from our Hamkade Counseling Center website, we’ll examine substance use disorder and addiction. Hamkade Counseling Center offers face-to-face services and psychological counseling over the phone.
Substance abuse and addiction disorder
We know that addiction brings difficult and complex conditions. However, no matter how you started taking drugs, recovery is possible. Most people with moderate to severe addiction need more help. However, this treatment process alone is not possible. One cannot easily overcome it.
What is a substance use disorder?
Substance use disorder is a complex condition that results from the repeated use of alcohol or other substances despite the harmful consequences for life and health that they may cause. SUD can be mild, moderate, or severe. Addiction often occurs when a substance overloads the brain’s reward center, which includes an abnormal release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Continued use of this substance leads to changes in the function and structure of the brain, which eventually leads to cravings, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms if the substance is not used. Substance use disorder and addiction can create difficult and complex conditions for people.
What are the different types of SUD?
There are many substances for which a person can have many problems in the area of substance use disorder. These options include:
- Hallucinogens (including LSD and PCP)
- Opiates (including heroin and prescription drugs)
- Sedative, hypnotic (sleeping pills) or anti-anxiety (anti-anxiety medication)
- stimulants (such as amphetamines or cocaine)
Substance use disorder and addiction can lead to difficult and complicated conditions with these options.
Are addiction and SUD the same?
Addiction is the compulsive and repetitive use of a substance, behavior or activity that a person feels unable to quit. Addictions that do not involve drugs or alcohol may include:
- Sex or pornography
- Internet or social media
- the shopping
- Video games
Note that of these, only gambling disorder and Internet gaming disorder are behavioral addictions recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) trusted source. However, even if they are not recognized in the DSM-5, these other behaviors – such as sex, social media, and shopping – cause many problems if they are performed excessively or compulsively. Regardless of your concerns, it is valid and you can seek professional help to fix it. Substance use disorder is an addiction that involves a substance that leads to addiction. This can include alcohol or any prescription or illegal drug.
What causes substance use and addiction disorder?
The exact causes of SUD are unknown. Some of the influencing factors are:
- Character traits
- Family history of use
- Mental health conditions, such as anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Exposure to trauma, especially during childhood, is closely related to substance abuse. In fact, SUDs are most commonly seen in people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies of twins and the family have shown that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of SUD. Research conducted in the TwinsTrusted Source shows that environmental factors play a more important role than genes in adolescent alcohol consumption. But in early adulthood, the role of genetics in drinking patterns increases dramatically. The results of another review of twin studies also show that addiction runs in families with 40 to 60 percent heritability, which is a trusted source. So there are many things to consider in substance use disorder and addiction.
Signs and symptoms of substance use disorder and addiction?
Signs and symptoms of drug abuse and addiction vary from person to person and depend on:
- Essence or behavior
- Length and intensity of use
- Each person’s personality
Here are the general symptoms of drug abuse and addiction:
- Continued use even though it may negatively affect health, relationships, or other aspects of life
- Desire for a substance or behavior
- regular overdose
- Worry about overuse
- Use it in situations where it may not be safe, such as driving under the influence of alcohol, using a non-sterile syringe, or having sex without a condom or other method of barrier
- Give up the activities you used to enjoy because of the use
- Spend a lot of time using or trying to use and recover
- Neglecting responsibilities at home, work or school
How is SUD diagnosed?
After examining the symptoms, we should know how to diagnose substance use and addiction disorder? Most clinicians use the following DSM-5 criteria when diagnosing substance use disorder:
- You feel that you need to use this substance regularly (daily or several times a day) and more than the original scheme.
- Spend a lot of time researching, using, and retrieving materials
- Cravings for drug abuse
- Need more materials to get the effect
- When you stop using this substance, you experience withdrawal symptoms
- Neglecting responsibilities at home, work or school
- Many thoughts about quitting smoking, but the inability to achieve this goal
- Continued use despite the problems it may cause in relationships
- Continued use despite mental or physical problems caused or aggravated
- Quitting or reducing social or recreational activities due to drug use
- Use the substance in conditions that may not be safe
Depending on how many of these symptoms a person shows in a 12-month period, SUD can be diagnosed as:
- Mild: 2-3 symptoms
- Medium: 4-5 degrees
- Severe: 6 or more symptoms
How is substance use disorder treated?
SUD treatment can be performed in two primary modes – inpatient and outpatient. The main goal is to put people in the most effective – but least restrictive – environment needed to initiate the process and then move them along the chain of care. From the most serious to the least severe, this gamut of care includes:
- hospital admission
- Doing the treatment at home
- Outpatient treatment
- Specific outpatient therapeutic activities
The different programs for substance use disorder and addiction treatment stem from three main models:
The psychological model of this approach focuses on potentially harmful impulses or emotional dysfunction as a major cause of SUD. It may include psychotherapy or behavioral therapy.
Sociocultural model This approach addresses any deficiencies in a person’s social and cultural environment that can be improved by changing your physical and social environment, including the use of self-help or spiritual activities. Treatment is often facilitated by people who have personal experience with addiction and are also in recovery.
The medical model for this approach emphasizes the biological, genetic, or physiological causes of SUD. It requires treatment by a doctor and the use of medications to relieve symptoms.
Speech therapy for substance use disorder and addiction
Most substance abuse treatments center around talk therapy. The psychological treatments most commonly used in the treatment of substance use disorder include:
- Motivational interviewing (MI). Refers to client-focused counseling designed to help a person find the inner motivation to quit smoking.
- Enhanced motivational therapy combines motivational interviewing with psychological counseling and offers a new way of thinking for people who may be fearful or defensive.
- Reward-based preventive therapy This approach uses positive reinforcement (monetary or otherwise) to induce abstinence from drug use. However, a reliable source of research indicates that it may not be effective in the long term.
- I am looking for safety. This approach, which is based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), was developed for people with SUD and PTSD. Research indicates that Trusted Source may be more effective at improving symptoms of PTSD than SUD, and is especially beneficial when combined with other treatments.
- Self change. This approach combines cognitive-behavioral therapy with motivational counseling.
- Some research suggests that the Trusted Source may be useful as an early intervention for adolescents with SUD.
Other behavioral and cognitive techniques based on behaviour.
Coping with and dealing with addiction
Substance use disorder and addiction are very challenging. Managing life and substance abuse is a marathon, not a sprint. One helpful measure is to resort to healthy activities that you love. Scientific evidence suggests that exercise and mindfulness meditation may help improve substance use, although more research is needed. There are also many resources and coping skills that you can use to help them live with these conditions.
Helping someone with SUD or addiction
It can be very difficult for you to see your loved one develop or live with an addiction. What can make it even more difficult is that your loved one doesn’t seem to want help. It can be very difficult for some people to see or admit that they have SUD, even when colleagues, friends, and family believe it is true. He may also be embarrassed or afraid to come forward or seek help. It is important to remember that the addict should be the one seeking treatment.
Insisting that your loved one stops seldom produces positive changes. Instead, family members and friends should reach out to the person, provide emotional support, and inform them of available resources. As a buddy, you need to know how to help an addict who doesn’t seem to want help? You should know that the presence and companionship of the person’s family is very important in this treatment process.
Many people begin their journey toward recovery by talking about their addiction with a trusted doctor. Early screening can be used to determine an individual’s risk of developing SUD. This may then be followed by a thorough evaluation and referral to an addiction specialist who can explain the different treatment options.